Biotech Basics: A Plasmid Primer

What are plasmids?  In 1952, Nobel Prize Winner Joshua Lederberg introduced the term ‘plasmid’, a double-stranded, circular DNA molecule that naturally exists in bacterial cells and some eukaryotes (Fig. 1). Plasmids have been used by molecular biologists to study, analyze,…

Develop an affinity for science!

What is an antibody? Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins, or Igs) are specialized proteins that allow the immune system to distinguish between “self” and “non-self” proteins or polysaccharides.    Antibody molecules comprise four linked polypeptide chains: two “heavy chains” and two “light…